Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights

1.Original Article

Regional variation in incisor shoveling in Indian population

Tejavathi Nagaraj, Pinhaj Ahmed Sherashiya, S. Hemavathy, T. L. Yogesh, Rahul Dev Goswami, N. Sreelakshmi
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:193–196] [No. of Hits: 832]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.77]


Background: The forensic odontologists play a very important role in assisting the Forensic team in the identification of corpuses found in natural disasters and homicides. Since tooth is a calcified structure and is resistant to high or low temperatures and is adequately strong to resist trauma, the teeth may be the only structure left behind intact in most of the cases. The resemblance of incisors to a shovel results from the combination of a concave lingual surface and elevated marginal ridges of the incisor teeth. Previous researches had proved that different population shows different shoveling pattern, which may be useful for identification of individuals in a mass disaster like natural or human created.

Aims and Objectives: The present study was framed for the identification of different shoveling pattern in incisors in different parts of India.

Materials and Methods: 400 patients were selected for the study which consisted of an equal number of individuals from different parts of India such as East, West, North, and South. The Hrdlicka’ subjective scale was used to categorize the degree of shovel-shaped incisors.

Results: Our study showed that shoveling pattern of incisors were more pronounced in the Western part of India than other areas such as East and North and was very minimal in the Southern part of India.

Clinical Significance: The present study on the shoveling pattern of incisors may be a useful aid for personal identification in forensic dentistry.

Keywords Forensic odontology, incisors, shoveling pattern

How to cite this article: Nagaraj T, Sherashiya PA, Hemavathy S, Yogesh TL, Goswami RD, Sreelakshmi N. Regional variation in incisor shoveling in Indian population. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:193-196.

Received 17 July 2015;
Accepted 24 August 2015

2.Review Article

Magic bullets: Paving the way in oral cancer therapy

Roopa S. Rao, Shankargouda Patil, Anveeta Agarwal, Sachin C. Sarode, Gargi S. Sarode
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:213–220] [No. of Hits: 5039]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.81]


Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains to be associated with high mortality and severe morbidity despite multimodality treatments. Advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in the carcinogenesis of oral cancer have paved way to agents that target the tumor microenvironment and specifically inhibit tumor growth. This review provides insight into the novel therapies which target selective molecular pathways involved in carcinogenesis which might improve treatment outcomes and long-term survival in patients with this aggressive neoplasm. The molecular pathways discussed in the present article are epidermal growth factor receptor pathway, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway, tumor suppressor gene p53/retinoblastoma pathway, phosphatase and tensin homologue/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, the RAS/MEK/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, notch pathway, etc., with special emphasis on HNSCC.

Keywords Carcinogenesis, head and neck neoplasms, phosphatidylinositols, RAS proteins

How to cite this article: Rao RS, Patil S, Agarwal A, Sarode SC, Sarode GS. Magic bullets: Paving the way in oral cancer therapy. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:213-220.

Received 29 July 2015;
Accepted 14 September 2015

3.Original Article

Audiometric analysis of type and degree of hearing impairment and its demographic correlation: A retrospective study

Sumanth Kanjikar, Anil Doddamani, Rajkamal Malige, Nagbhushan Reddy
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:189–192] [No. of Hits: 699]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.76]


Background: This retrospective study was done to know the demographic characteristics of patients suffering from hearing loss. The type and degree of hearing impairment were correlated with the demographic characteristics.

Aims and Objectives: (1) To establish the type and degree of hearing loss in patients (2) evaluate age and gender-wise differences with respect to type and degree of hearing loss. (3) Correlate age of a patient with degree of hearing impairment.

Materials and Methods: Audiometric data of 252 patients were taken. Demographic characteristics were compared with types and degrees of hearing impairment.

Results: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) type was the highest with 163 (66.5%) out of 252 cases. Males were more affected by SNHL, mixed and conductive types. In the SNHL category, the highest number of cases belonged to the 51-60 yeas age group (24.5%) whereas in the conductive and mixed types of hearing loss, the maximum patients were found in the 21-30 age group (51.5% and 25.6% respectively). Least number of cases was in the age groups of 1-10 years followed by 81-90 years. Bilateral impairment was more than unilateral impairment.

Conclusion: Our study concludes that men are more affected than women, bilateral involvement is more common than unilateral, and SNHL type is the most common type of hearing impairment.

Keywords Audiometry, conductive, demography, hearing impairment, screening

How to cite this article: Kanjikar S, Doddamani A, Malige R, Reddy N. Audiometric analysis of type and degree of hearing impairment and its demographic correlation: A retrospective study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:189-192.

Received 27 July 2015;
Accepted 5 September 2015

4.Original Article

Efficacy of topical curcumin in the management of oral lichen planus: A randomized controlled-trial

Deepika Keshari, Karthikeya Patil, Mahima V.G.
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:197–203] [No. of Hits: 5745]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.78]


Background: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune, mucocutaneous condition which commonly involves the oral mucosa. Management of oral lichen planus (OLP) is important as it is an oral potentially malignant disorder. Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment; however, their usage is associated with potential side effects. Phytochemicals, such as curcumin, have been used extensively for centuries, owing to its numerous therapeutic properties.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical curcumin in the management of OLP.

Materials and Methods: The research group consisted of 27 adult OLP patients, who were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 12) was treated with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% and the study group (n = 15) with commercially available topical curcumin ointment each to be applied thrice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were reviewed every week.

Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA were performed.

Results: The research groups showed a significant reduction in all the parameters measured. The comparison showed significant improvement in the erythema (P = 0.002), but non-significant reduction in pain (P = 0.697), and ulceration (P = 0.291) in the study group as compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Curcumin fared better in reducing pain, erythema, and ulceration. Thus, curcumin can be used as an alternative to steroid in the management of signs and symptoms of OLP with minimal side effects as compared to steroids with similar efficacy.

Keywords Corticosteroids, curcumin, oral lichen planus, potentially malignant disorder, topical

How to cite this article: Keshari D, Patil K, Mahima VG. Efficacy of topical curcumin in the management of oral lichen planus: A randomized controlled-trial. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:197-203.

Received 03 July 2015;
Accepted 29 August 2015

5.Original Article

Pome “Grenade” - Antimicrobial potency of pomegranate peel extract against Streptococcus mutans

Shashidara Raju, Sudheendra Udyavara Sridhara, Aparna H. Gopalkrishna, Vanishri C. Haragannavar, Archana Vaikom Krishnan
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:204–206] [No. of Hits: 915]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.79]


Background: Plant products have emerged in the forefront of management of several infectious diseases. Use of such therapeutically effective natural products generally entails lesser side effects and drug resistance. Streptococcus mutans is implicated in the common oral diseases including dental caries.

Aim: The present study is an attempt to investigate the anti-streptococcal activity of pomegranate peel extract.

Materials and Methods: Hydro-methanolic extract of fresh ground paste of fruit peels were prepared using a soxhlet apparatus and employed in an antimicrobial assay using a well diffusion and micro-broth dilution technique.

Results: All concentrations of the extract used show promising results with both antimicrobial assays used. The extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans at concentrations as low as 1:8 diluted from the stock obtained after rotary evaporation.

Conclusion: The results implicate that exploring the application of Punica granatum extracts in oral health care could prove worthwhile. Further studies supported with in vivo evidence could implicate the extract to be an effective tool in oral health management such as mouthwashes, root canal irrigants, etc.

Keywords Pomegranate, Punica granatum peel, Streptococcus mutans

How to cite this article: Raju S, Sridhara SU, Gopalkrishna AH, Haragannavar VC, Krishnan AV. Pome “Grenade” - Antimicrobial potency of pomegranate peel extract against Streptococcus mutans. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:204-206.

Received 19 July 2015;
Accepted 30 August 2015

6.Review Article

Vascular normalization window: A positive prognostic foresight for head and neck cancer

M. L. Asha, Aprajita Dua, Basetty Neelakantam Rajarathnam, H. M. Mahesh Kumar, Poulomi Dey, P. Deepak
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:207–212] [No. of Hits: 1289]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.80]


Tumor angiogenesis is a hallmark of advanced cancers which is critical for the continued growth and progression of solid tumors owing to the metastatic spread of tumor cells. This knowledge has led to the concept of targeting the tumor vasculature as a therapeutic modality. Several retrospective studies support the positive prognosis for the implications of angiogenic markers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), currently making them an attractive target oriented treatment. Radiotherapy (RT) being the conventional treatment for HNSCC, makes it imperative in this present era to recognize the communication between antiangiogenic therapy and RT, thus developing a combination therapy to achieve progress in the outcome of clinical practice. The combination of antiangiogenic agents and ionizing radiation involve many interactions between the cells, the stroma of the tumor and tissue vasculature. Increased angiogenesis is responsible for the proliferation of tumor cells and its metastasis which ultimately leads to tumor hypoxia. Any agent targeting the tumor vasculature can modulate the tumor microenvironment thus normalizing it and enhancing the therapeutic response of hypoxic cells of head and neck cancers. This review provides insight into the mechanisms by which the antiangiogenic therapy combined with RT improves the tumor response to radiation, thereby suggesting a promising prognostic treatment modality of HNSCC in the time ahead.

Keywords Antiangiogenesis, head and neck cancer, targeted therapy, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor

How to cite this article: Asha ML, Dua A, Rajarathnam BN, Kumar HM, Dey P, Deepak P. Vascular normalization window: A positive prognostic foresight for head and neck cancer. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:207-212.

Received 28 July 2015;
Accepted 10 September 2015

7.Review Article

Replacement of missing teeth in young adult patients: Diagnosis, treatment options, and outcome of care - A review

Bishnupati Singh, Namrata Sinha, Vallabh Mahadevan, Brajbhushan Mall, M. D. Chethan, Amit Tamrakar
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:221–225] [No. of Hits: 1647]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.82]


Patients often present with congenital and acquired tooth loss, traumatic injuries, and it is incumbent on the prosthodontics team to diagnose educate and provide care plans that address the range of issues concerning the young adult needing tooth replacement therapy. The challenge in treating patients with missing teeth in young adult patients and concomitant malocclusion, particularly in the long-term is how to achieve the best esthetic and functional results. The diagnostic phase is critical and involves an interdisciplinary team. Auto-transplantation of teeth and orthodontic space closure represent viable biological approaches for replacement of incisors because of the permanence of the result, particularly in growing individuals. Even if solid comparative research data for the different replacement methods so far are not available, a compilation of all treatment modalities can produce treatment results that are almost indistinguishable from an intact dentition. This will lead to progressive care plans that engage removable, fixed, and implant prosthodontics with an eye to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper will review the critical points of assessment, key points to consider, and then provide clinical examples of care plans for the transitional adult in our practice. The goal should be that patients who have received treatment for missing teeth will have treatment results that are indistinguishable from normal appearance. A prerequisite is that the therapy is based on a complete diagnosis, that the indications for the selected approach are present, and that attention to detail throughout treatment is exercised by all involved in the treatment.

Keywords Auto-transplantation, canine substitution, decoronation, implant therapy

How to cite this article: Singh B, Sinha N, Mahadevan V, Mall B, Chethan MD, Tamrakar A. Replacement of missing teeth in young adult patients: Diagnosis, treatment options, and outcome of care - A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:221-225.

Received 13 July 2015;
Accepted 16 August 2015

8.Case Report

Oral lichen planus in child: A rare case report

Shivayogi M. Hugar, Ravindranath Reddy, Niraj Gokhale, Shweta S. Hugar
[Year:2015] [Month:September-October] [Volume:2 ] [Number:5] [Pages No:226–228] [No. of Hits: 1214]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.83]


Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that predominantly affects older patients and occurs less commonly in the pediatric population. This lesion is extremely rare in childhood, and only a few cases have been cited in literature. The treatment was initiated by psychological counseling of parents and the child. The patient was put on topical steroids (triamcinolone acetonide), multivitamins, and antioxidant therapy. A routine comprehensive dental treatment was done, and a regular follow-up was done every week for a period of 3-month. Outcome: At the end of 4 weeks, all lesions resolved and the child was put under follow-up regime for 6 months and no new lesions were detected.

Keywords Children, lichen planus, mucocutaneous lesions, triamcinolone acetonide

How to cite this article: Hugar SM, Reddy R, Gokhale N, Hugar SS. Oral lichen planus in child: A rare case report. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:226-228.

Received 25 July 2015;
Accepted 07 September 2015