Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights


A comparative evaluation of salivary albumin levels in periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A clinicobiochemical study

V.Gopinath, V. Shivakumar, Sayad Iram Fatema, Rohanjeet A. Dede, Shriniwas D. Maindad, Santosh Palla
[Year:2019] [Month:November-December] [Volume:6 ] [Number:6] [Pages No:159–162] [No. of Hits: 431]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.283]


Aim: This study aims to compare and evaluate the salivary albumin levels in periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis patients.

Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were divided into two groups consisting of periodontally healthy patients (n=45) and chronic periodontitis patients (n=45) for the study. Periodontal disease was determined based on clinical parameters, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. Human whole unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile test containers, with the subject seated in an upright position between 9 am and 10 am in the morning after they had refrained from oral intake, toothbrushing. Approximately 5 ml of saliva was collected and analyzed using fully automated analyzer (BS-220). Salivary albumin level was estimated using bromocresol green method.

Statistical Analysis: The unpaired t-test statistical analysis was applied to make comparison among periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis patients.

Results: Mean salivary albumin level in the patients of normal group was 310.33 ± 37.75 and in periodontitis group was 822.91 ± 277.91 (t = 12.26, P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: A significant rise in salivary albumin levels has been found in chronic periodontitis patients as compared to periodontally healthy individuals. Hence, salivary albumin can be used as a diagnostic biomarker to assess the periodontal disease.

Keywords: Bromocresol green, chronic periodontitis, salivary albumin

How to cite this article: Gopinath V, Shivakumar V, Fatema SI, Dede RA, Maindad SD, Palla S. A comparative evaluation of salivary albumin levels in periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A clinicobiochemical study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2019;6:159-162.

Received: 10 November 2019;

Accepted: 14 December 2019


Expression of podoplanin in predicting the biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma – A clinicopathological correlation

Kritika Rai, Kavitha Prasad, Parimala Sagar, Roopa S. Rao, C. H. Vanishri, M. Sri Gowri
[Year:2019] [Month:November-December] [Volume:6 ] [Number:6] [Pages No:163–170] [No. of Hits: 3517]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.284]


Background: Podoplanin is a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein that been highly and specifically expressed in the lymphatic endothelial cells, but not in the endothelium of blood vessels. Studies have shown that podoplanin expression in tumor cells including those of squamous cell carcinomas and a relationship with the clinicopathological features. This raises a possibility that podoplanin might have a biological function in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its expression could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis.

Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and histopathology reports of 50 cases of OSCC were used in this study. These were evaluated immunohistochemically for the expression of podoplanin using D2-40, a monoclonal antibody. The association between podoplanin expression and tumor site, size and degree of differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and prognosis was analyzed.

Results: In this study, we observed that podoplanin was highly expressed in OSCC, but we found no significant association between podoplanin expression and clinicopathological characteristics and survival.

Conclusion: The role of podoplanin as a marker for lymph node metastasis is questionable. To determine the role of podoplanin as a prognostic marker, further prospective studies are required with a longer follow-up period. Further studies using a combination of markers are required to predict tumor invasiveness and occult metastasis in OSCC.

Keywords: D2-40, immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, podoplanin

How to cite this article: Rai K, Prasad K, Sagar P, Rao RS, Vanishri CH, Gowri MS. Expression of podoplanin in predicting the biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma – A clinicopathological correlation. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2019;6:163-170.

Received: 20 November 2019;

Accepted: 22 December 2019


Evaluation of inferior alveolar canal course using cone-beam computed tomography

Pramila Mendonca, B. N. Praveen, G. Shubha, A. R. Shubhasini, G. Keerthi
[Year:2019] [Month:November-December] [Volume:6 ] [Number:6] [Pages No:171–177] [No. of Hits: 515]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.285]


Background and Objective: Radiographic interpretation of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) and other anatomical structures of the mandible are very important, since the injury to these structures during surgical procedures may pose complications. The present study evaluates the course of the IAC and its variations both in the vertical and buccolingual dimension and to analyze the related anatomical structures of the mandible, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methodology: Three-dimensional scans of the 80 dry human mandibles were obtained using CBCT. The images were evaluated for the course of the IAC, in vertical and buccolingual dimensions. The images were analyzed for the presence of bifid mandibular canal and anterior mandibular structures such as median lingual foramen and canals, lateral lingual canals, for the visibility of incisive canals, and incidental findings.

Results: Course of the IAC was observed as progressive descent in 36.9%, straight projection in 33.1%, and catenary like configuration in 30%. The evaluation of the buccolingual dimension showed three types of the canal as sharp turn pattern in 59.4%, curved soft exit in 35%, and straight exit in 5.6%. Bifid canals were found in 57.5% and median lingual foramen was noted in 96.3%. Median lingual canal, lateral lingual canal, and incisive canal were found in 87.5%, 20.6%, and 96.3%, respectively. Bilateral accessory mental foramen was found in one sample.

Conclusion: The study revealed the interpretation of multiple mandibular anatomic structures, their variations and a range of measurement data using CBCT. This knowledge helps the clinician for precise treatment planning for implant placement and to avoid possible implications during any surgical procedures.

Keywords: Accessory mental foramen, cone-beam computed tomography, incisive canal, inferior alveolar canal, lateral lingual canal, median lingual canal

How to cite this article: Mendonca P, Praveen BN, Shubha G, Shubhasini AR, Keerthi G. Evaluation of inferior alveolar canal course using cone-beam computed tomography. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2019;6:171-177.

Received: 25 November 2019;

Accepted: 27 December 2019


The tale of microabscesses: A review

Suma Srinivasan, Amrita Samanta, B. Veerendra Kumar, M. G. Madhura, Sarita Yanduri
[Year:2019] [Month:November-December] [Volume:6 ] [Number:6] [Pages No:178–182] [No. of Hits: 3241]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.286]


Microabscess refers to a small accumulation of polymorphs, lymphoid cells, or eosinophils in the epidermis and/or adnexal structures of the skin and epithelium of mucous membranes. Munro’s microabscess found in psoriasis vulgaris and psoriasiform oral lesions is an accumulation of neutrophils in stratum granulosum, stratum corneum, or stratum malpighi. Neutrophilic microabscess formation is also evident in various bacterial infections, Reiter’s disease, and fissure tongue. In mycosis fungoides, intraepidermal accumulation of monocytoid neoplastic lymphoid cells is referred to as Darier Pautrier microabscess. Lymphocytic accumulation in the epidermis is found in allergic contact dermatitis, lichen simplex chronicus, and pityriasis rosea. Microabscess of eosinophils is seen in pemphigus vegetans and incontinentia pigmenti, while dermatitis herpetiformis shows admixture of neutrophilic and eosinophilic microabscesses. Thus, microabscesses are characteristic of certain pathologies and are helpful in their diagnosis. Furthermore, insight into formation of these microabscesses may have a tale to tell regarding the disease process. Thus, this article attempts to review microabscesses and their significance in oral diseases.

Keywords: Epidermis, eosinophil, lymphocyte, microabscess, neutrophil

How to cite this article: Srinivasan S, Samanta A. Veerendra BV, Madhura MG, Yanduri S. The tale of microabscesses: A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2019;6:178-182.

Received: 28 November 2019;

Accepted: 29 December 2019