Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights


Magnetic resonance imaging: Refined to re-find

A. Cecile Priyanthi, B. N. Sumalatha, Vasthsala Naik, Amandeep Sodhi, Shriyanka Rajshekhar
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:139–142] [No. of Hits: 1061]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.178]


The hunt for an alternative and naive imaging modality by the clinicians for maxillofacial ailments has laid the foundations for various advancements in dental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is progressing for the past few decades from being a technique with great potential to one that has become the primary diagnostic investigation for many clinical problems. It has evolved from a confined diagnostic technique to more feasible and advanced technique for accurate diagnosis. This article reviews the basic principle of MRI, the recent and advanced changes such as the use of sweep imaging in Fourier transform fusion imaging, dynamic imaging, three-dimensional spin echo imaging, area specific magnetic coils, highly sensitive chemical probes, and electron spin resonance imaging to visualize the hard tissues which would be a paradigm shift in maxillofacial diagnosis.

Keywords: Electron spin resonance, magnetic resonance imaging, paramagnetism, spin echo, sweep imaging in Fourier transform

How to cite this article: Priyanthi AC, Sumalatha BN, Naik V, Sodhi A, Shriyanka R. Magnetic resonance imaging: Refined to re-find. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:139-142.

Received: 12th January 2017;

Accepted: 20th March 2017


Evaluation of morphologic and cytomorphometric changes in oral mucosa in Type II diabetes mellitus – An exfoliative cytology study

A. P. Indira, N. Vijayalakshmi, Maria Priscilla David, R. Shashikala
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:109–113] [No. of Hits: 785]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.172]


Background: It is well known that disease process of diabetes mellitus has effects on various tissues of the body. Diabetes mellitus adversely affect the morphology of oral mucosa, which may compromise tissue functions to favor the occurrence of oral infections and oral neoplasia. These effects can be studied at cellular level using oral, buccal exfoliative cytology.

Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the alteration in the morphology and cytomorphometry of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells of Type II diabetes using exfoliative cytology.

Materials and Methods: Oral cytological smears were made from 20 Type II diabetes patients and 20 healthy individuals. The smears were stained with papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Evaluation of cells for morphologic and cytomorphometric changes were done using research microscope.

Results: Specific qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in the study group. There was a strong r109elation between diabetes and cytomorphometric parameters.

Conclusion: Cellular alterations (cytomorphometrical and morphological) observed in diabetic patients were related to glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Cellular alterations in oral exfoliated cells can be used as one of the investigative tool which can assist in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Cytomorphometry, diabetes mellitus, exfoliative cytology, oral exfoliative buccal cells

How to cite this article: Indira AP, Vijayalakshmi N, David MP, Shashikala R. Evaluation of morphologic and cytomorphometric changes in oral mucosa in Type II diabetes mellitus - An exfoliative cytology study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:109-113.

Received: 23 March 2017

Accepted: 19 May 2017


Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of major salivary glands in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in correlation with salivary quantity and serum magnesium levels – A cross-sectional study

Vishwanath Rangdhol, Siva Santhosh, Swetha Paulose, E. Lakshmipriya, V. L. Laxman, E. B. Kayalvizhi
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:114–119] [No. of Hits: 797]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.173]


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial genetic disorder, and studies have found that it affects the salivary gland function and levels of micronutrients.

Objective: Objective of the study was to assess the Doppler ultrasonographic (USG) changes of major salivary glands in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to correlate it with the quantity of salivary secretion and serum magnesium levels.

Methods: A total of 90 patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes mellitus were categorized into three groups of 30 each, namely, Group A (well controlled), Group B (moderately controlled), and Group C (poorly controlled) based on the HbA1c levels and 30 normal individuals were included as controls. Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess the horizontal and vertical dimensions and vascularity of major salivary glands. The measurements were compared with salivary quantity and serum magnesium levels.

Results: The mean vertical and horizontal dimensions of parotid glands were 4.1 ± 0.3, 4.2 ± 0.3 cm (Group A), 4.4 ± 0.4, 4 ± 0.5 cm (Group B), 4.7 ± 0.5, 4 ± 0.5 cm (Group C), respectively, and 3.1 ± 0.3, 2.9 ±0.3 cm in controls. The range of mean value of submandibular gland was 2.5 ± 0.3 2.6 ± 0.3 cm (Group A), 2.9 ± 0.3, 2.9 ± 0.3 cm (Group B), and 3 ± 0.1*2.9 ± 0.2 cm (Group C) while 2.7 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.1 cm in controls which was highly significant with P value of < 0.01. The mean values of salivary flow in Groups A, B, C were 0.35 ± 0.15, 0.37 ± 0.16, and 0.2 ± 0.12, respectively, and that of controls were 0.38 ± 0.15 ml/min. Magnesium levels were 1.83 ± 0.3 mg/dl, 1.25 ± 0.32 mg/dl, and 1.13 ± 0.37 mg/dl in Groups A, B, C, respectively, and that of controls were 1.83 ± 0.3 mg/dl. Serum magnesium and salivary flow had highly significant correlation values with ultrasonographic changes in Group C compared with Groups A and B.

Conclusion: To conclude, increased HbA1c levels were associated with increased USG measurements of major salivary glands and decreased levels of serum magnesium and salivary flow.

Keywords: Hyposalivation, microvascular disease, salivary gland imaging, Type II diabetes mellitus, ultrasonography

How to cite this article: Rangdhol V, Santhosh S, Paulose S, Lakshmipriya, Laxman VL, Kayalvizhi EB. Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of major salivary glands in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in correlation with salivary quantity and serum magnesium levels - A cross-sectional study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:114-119.

Received: 14 June 2017;

Accepted: 17 June 2017


Prevalence and characterization of non-odontogenic orofacial pain in a tertiary health-care center at Puducherry - A cross-sectional study

V. L. Lakshman, Vishwanath Rangdhol, S. Vandana, G. Sitra, Swetha Paulose, E. B. Kayalvizhi
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:120–123] [No. of Hits: 1146]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.174]


Background: Pain is a significant discomfort faced by the majority of people with orofacial disorders. This study was aimed at assessing nature of pain using different pain skills among population suffering from non-odontogenic orofacial pain.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of non-odontogenic pain and characterize the nature of non-odontogenic pain at the outpatient department of Mahatma Gandhi Medical Hospital and Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences.

Method: Patients were selected by randomized sampling method for a period of 1 year. Patients diagnosed with non-odontogenic orofacial pain were asked to fill pain questionnaires to analyze the intensity and quality of the pain. The obtained results were subjected to percentage analysis.

Results: A total of 1515 patients reported with non-odontogenic orofacial pain, with male to female ratio of 2.08:1.03. The majority of patients reported pain due to temporomandibular joint/musculoskeletal disorders, followed by non-odontogenic oral pain conditions such as headache and neuralgic pain conditions, sinusitis, ear-related disorders, throat- and neck-related disorders, and psychogenic pain conditions. The intensity and quality of pain differed from each condition.

Conclusion: Multiple scales to measure the intensity of pain, and McGill pain questionnaire to analyze the quality and character of pain gives a fair idea about the patient’s quality of life, providing baseline information about non-odontogenic orofacial pain.

Keywords: Headache, neuralgic pain conditions, orofacial pain, sinusitis, temporomandibular joint/musculoskeletal disorders

How to cite this article: Lakshman VL, Rangdhol V, Vandana, Sitra, Paulose S, Kayalvizhi EB. Prevalence and characterization of non-odontogenic orofacial pain in a tertiary health-care center at Puducherry - A cross-sectional study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:120-123.

Received: 11 May 2017;

Accepted: 20 June 2017


Cariogenic microflora and pH in superficial and deep layers of occlusal carious lesions - A metagenomic analysis

S. Vijayaraja, R. Sathyanarayanan, Carounanidy Usha, Bindu Meera John, K. Karpagavinayagam
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:124–128] [No. of Hits: 1105]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.175]


Background: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli were the primary microorganisms that cause dental caries. However, current molecular microbiology advancements have suggested the possible roles of other microorganisms in causation of carious lesions.

Aims and Objectives: The aim is to explore the complete bacterial profile and pH in superficial and deep layer of carious dentinal lesion in reversible pulpitis patient.

Materials and Methods: A total of 12 patients with occlusal cavitated lesion were chosen for this study. The carious dentinal sample was collected. The samples were subjected to DNA extraction quantification with 16S rRNA amplification and pH measurement by suspending the carious sample into 0.9% of NaCl solution.

Results: The results showed higher number of Actinobacteria followed by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes. The superficial layer was found to be acidic pH.

Conclusion: There are more bacteria in the superficial carious layer than in the deep layer, with a fold difference of 2.8%.

Keywords: Bacterial population, deep dentinal carious layer, metagenomic analysis, superficial carious layer

How to cite this article: Vijayaraja S, Sathyanarayanan R, Usha C, John BM, Karpagavinayagam K. Cariogenic microflora and pH in superficial and deep layers of occlusal carious lesions - A metagenomic analysis. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:124-128.

Received: 11 June 2017;

Accepted: 12 July 2017


Retrospective analysis of a 6-year cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

Gyanendra Misra, Kavitha Prasad, Roopa S. Rao, R. M. Lalitha, K. Ranganath, B. R. Rajanikanth, Rupali C. Mane
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:129–135] [No. of Hits: 830]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.176]


Purpose: The present study analyzed 53 consecutive patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) over a period of 6 years (from 2006 to 2012) to determine if epidemiological differences correspond to different stages of the disease and affected the survival rate.

Methods: In this cohort study, medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The epidemiological data included age, gender, residence, tobacco habit, duration of tobacco use, blood group, and hemoglobin. The clinicopathological features noted were tumor site, tumor size, nodal status, histopathological grade, metastasis, clinical grade, and treatment. We analyzed the relationship of epidemiological characteristics with treatment by the Chi-square test and survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier curve. The statistical test significance level was set at P < 0.05.

Results: Of the 53 patients of OSCC confirmed through histopathological diagnosis, the ratio of female to male was 1.65:1 and mean age was 51.83 ± 12.57 years. Majority of the cases, i.e., 43 (81.13%) were from rural area. 51 (96.22%) patients were tobacco habituates, of which 41 (80.40%) were smokeless tobacco chewers. Buccal mucosa was the most common tumor site, i.e., 23 (43.40%). The clinical presentation of ulcer/ulceroproliferative cases, i.e., 43 (81.13%) was most frequent. Moreover, statistical significance was observed with univariate association analysis between clinical presentation and treatment; in patients who underwent surgical treatment (P = 0.04). Of 35 (66.04%) patients who underwent surgical treatment, only 7 (20%) patients had recurrence. Survival rate was 90.57% at 3-year follow-up.

Conclusion: The clinical presentation and treatment outcome of OSCC patients with the habit of smokeless tobacco is presented. The improved survival rate in our patients could be due to surgery being the main treatment modality and buccal mucosa being the most frequent site.

Keywords: Prognosis, squamous cell carcinoma, therapeutics

How to cite this article: Misra G, Prasad K, Rao RS, Lalitha RM, Ranganath K, Rajanikanth BR, Mane RC. Retrospective analysis of a 6-year cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:129-135.

Received: 18 June 2017;

Accepted: 22 July 2017


E-cigarettes in India - An invite to oral cancer

Roopa S. Rao, Dominic Augustine, Shwetha Nambiar, C. H. Vanishri, S. V. Sowmya
[Year:2017] [Month:July-August] [Volume:4 ] [Number:4] [Pages No:136–138] [No. of Hits: 1242]
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  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.177]


E-cigarettes (E-cigs) popularly known as personal vaporizer is the current trend, the youth are attracted to. The target group are kids and teenagers who are driven to its trendy flavors and fruity odor. Adults and non-smokers are addicted too due to its nicotine content and its ease of portability. Robust advertisement with no tag of statutory warnings has scaled the market of E-cigs. The explosive threat of usage by 2018 is expected to double. It appears deceptive to be safe, less toxic alternative to conventional cigarettes. They do not fall under the blanket of tobacco products hence does not catch the eye of regulatory body’s scrutiny. It is assumed that E-cigs products may help smokers to lower the nicotine cravings during their withdrawal phase of tobacco use. E-cigs were in vogue as a tobacco deaddiction device, however, at this point, it is unclear whether they may be effective as smoking cessation aids. It was assumed to perpetuate the nicotine addiction and thus interfere with quitting. The addiction may foster youngsters to take up conventional smoking to attain a higher level of satisfaction. This article highlights the potential risks involved and the impact on teenagers and adolescents due to its usage. Further assessment of the potential carcinogenic effects of E-cigs vapor is urgently required to be explored.

Keywords: E-cigarette, e-liquid, mouth neoplasm, nicotine, tobacco

How to cite this article: Rao RS, Augustine D, Nambiar S, Vanishri CH, Sowmya SV. E-cigarettes in India - An invite to oral cancer. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:136-138.

Received: 22 June 2017;

Accepted: 09 July 2071