Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights


Forensic radiology: An emerging science

Sanjana Tarani, S. Swetha Kamakshi, Vathsala Naik, Amandeep Sodhi
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:59–63] [No. of Hits: 7235]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.158]


Forensic maxillofacial radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging in which radiological techniques are utilized to assist physicians and pathologists in situations pertaining to the law. Radiology has a wide arena of usage in forensics in terms of dental identification, identification based on anatomy, and using various maxillofacial skeletal landmarks. Since the radiographs are the quick, easy, simple, inexpensive and nondestructive method of obtaining information about age, sex, race of the victim, it is an indispensable aid in identification. With the advancement of newer technologies, more accurate information is obtained for identification as well as in the facial reconstruction of the unknown deceased person. This paper, therefore, aims to revisit the role of oral and maxillofacial radiology in forensic science where radiographic methodologies play a pivotal role to determine identity using the tooth and its associated orofacial structures in conjunction with advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging which are gradually being added to the forensic arsenal.

Keywords: Dental identification, dental profiling, forensic radiology

How to cite this article: Tarani S, Kamakshi SS, Naik V, Sodhi A. Forensic radiology: An emerging science. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:59-63.

Received: November 2016;

Revised: January 2017


Estimation of arecoline content of various forms of areca nut preparations by high-pressure thin-layer chromatography

Dipti Dutta, C. Ramanna, V. V. Kamath
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:31–37] [No. of Hits: 11891]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.153]


Background: Areca nut and its commercial preparations such as pan masala have been causatively linked in the disorder oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Arecoline, major alkaloid of areca nut, is involved in stimulating fibrosis through transforming growth factor beta pathway. Areca consumed in various forms and with additives alters the arecoline content of the nut.

Aims: Estimation of levels of arecoline in various areca nut preparations consumed in the country (raw, boiled, and roasted) along with commercially prepared sample of areca nut (pan masala).

Materials and Methods: Estimation and validation were performed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography system (CAMAG® Muttenz, Switzerland). Four samples of 5 g each of raw, roasted, boiled, and pan masala containing areca nuts were assessed. Pure arecoline was used for validation as a control. Three runs of each with inter- and intra-day validations were carried out as per established protocols.

Results: Raw areca nut contains the highest concentration of arecoline (1.15 ± 0.008) followed by pan masala preparations (0.94 ± 0.006), least content in boiled areca nut (0.79 ± 0.009), while roasted variety exhibited an intermediate level (0.85 ± 0.007).

Conclusions: Alteration of contents of the areca nut has great implications in its capacity to induce the potentially malignant disorder of OSF. The use of raw areca nuts in commercial preparations and well-known observations of greater incidence of the development of OSF and probable malignant transformation with these forms is probably related to their arecoline content.

Keywords: Arecoline, boiled areca nut, high-pressure thin-layer chromatography, pan masala, raw areca nut, roasted areca nut

How to cite this article: Dutta D, Ramanna C, Kamath VV. Estimation of arecoline content of various forms of areca nut preparations by high-pressure thin-layer chromatography. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:31-37.

Received: 02 Feb 2017;

Accepted: 28 March 2017


Host modulation therapy: An updated review

S. Ipshita, Ida Grace Kurian, P. Dileep, C. N. Guruprasad, Priyanka Singh, A. R. Pradeep
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:55–58] [No. of Hits: 6268]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.157]


Chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin. Microbial biofilm and associated host responses are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The host response is essentially protective by intent but paradoxically can also result in tissue damage. With increasing awareness and understanding of host-microbial interaction in periodontal pathogenesis has lead the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents including antimicrobial therapy as well as host modulatory therapy for the management of periodontitis. Host modulation therapy has emerged in recent years as a valid treatment concept for the management of periodontal disease and represents a significant step forward for the clinician as well as patients with periodontal disease. This review aims at focusing on various host modulatory therapies that have been developed or proposed to modulate host responses for the treatment of periodontitis.

Keywords: Bisphosphonates, chronic periodontitis, host response, interleukins, matrix metalloproteinases, statins

How to cite this article: Ipshita S, Kurian IG, Dileep P, Guruprasad CN, Singh P, Pradeep AR. Host modulation therapy: An updated review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:55-58.

Received: 12 March 2017;

Accepted: 20 April 2017


Physical and psychological distress - trigeminal neuralgia: A case report

M. K. Navya, G. P. Sujatha, L. Ashok
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:72–75] [No. of Hits: 2391]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.161]


A 45-year-old female patient had reported with a complaint of pain for 8 months. On thorough history taking and clinical examination, we were able to confirm the final diagnosis as trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This article has a case report and review of literature on history, pathophysiology, clinical features, and therapeutics of TN.

Keywords: Carbamazepine, nerve demyelination, trigeminal neuralgia

How to cite this article: Navya MK, Sujatha GP, Ashok L. Physical and psychological distress - trigeminal neuralgia: A case report. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:72-75.

Received: 02 March 2017;

Accepted: 25 April 2017

5.Letter to Editor

Various methods to recognize stress levels in students

Santosh Hunasgi, Anila Koneru
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:76–77] [No. of Hits: 663]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.162]


Numerous methods are brought forward to recognize stress levels. Few technologies are mainly based on physiological signals: Heart: Variability of heart rate (HRV), heart rate, blood pressure, pupil diameter, cortisol, and skin conductance. Heart rate, HRV, and blood pressure are mainly used to monitor sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

How to cite this article: Hunasgi S, Koneru A. Various methods to recognize stress levels in students. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:76-77.

Received: 15 March 2017

Accepted: 22 April 2017


An in vitro study to compare the dimensional accuracy of commercially available heat cure denture processing materials at the posterior palatal seal area

B. Uma Maheswari, Kalluri Sriniwas, Sailaja Akkela, Tejendra N. Wadambe
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:38–41] [No. of Hits: 1110]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.154]


Background: Posterior palatal seal area which the most posterior limitation of maxillary denture base has a greater contribution for retention in maxillary complete denture. The material aspect that is the heat cure denture base materials used for fabrication of final prosthesis is also equally important for clinical success. These materials may show variation in their properties such as strength and dimensional stability. These dimensional changes occurred are may be due to the combined result of both polymerization shrinkage and stresses released during flask cooling and it further may alter the pattern of dimensional acrylic resin behavior.

Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of the study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional accuracy of various heat polymerizing materials on the posterior palatal seal area.

Materials and Methods: Four commercially available heat cure denture processing materials, namely, Lucitone (Dentsply), Dental products India (DPI), Viracryl, Trevalon (Dentsply) were used as testing materials. An ideal edentulous Class I maxillary stone mold is taken as master die. A total of 20 samples were taken and were divided into four groups of five each. The dimensional changes were assessed at five different points marked at the posterior palatal seal area using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm.

Results: Statistical analysis was performed by IBM SPSS version 21 using Kruskal-Wallis test, and the statistical significance was defined at P < 0.01. The mean marginal increase was 2.61 mm for DPI, 1.64 mm for Lucitone, 1.94 mm for Viracryl, and 1.34 mm for Trevalon.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the dimensional accuracy of dentures is influenced by the type of heat cured materials used. In this study, Trevalon exhibited minimal discrepancy while DPI showed the highest discrepancy among the groups with statistically significant difference between the materials

Keywords: Acrylic resins, compression molding, polymerization shrinkage, polymethyl methacrylate

How to cite this article: Maheswari BU, Sriniwas K, Akkela S, Wadambe TN. An in vitro study to compare the dimensional accuracy of commercially available heat cure denture processing materials at the posterior palatal seal area. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:38-41.

Received: 06 February 2017;

Accepted: 10 March 2017


Effects of application of various forms of areca nut preparations in buccal mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats with relation to the development of oral submucous fibrosis

N. Raghavendra, C. Ramanna, V. V. Kamath, Kanika Singroha
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:42–49] [No. of Hits: 1007]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.155]


Background: Areca nut is the main etiological agent in the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and is consumed in different forms such as raw, roasted, boiled, and commercial preparations (pan masala, gutkha). This variation in availability of forms is closely linked to degree of affliction and clinical presentations of the disorder.

Aims and Objectives: Identification and evaluation of tissue changes in rat buccal mucosa subjected to various areca nut forms (raw, roasted, and boiled), pan masala and pure arecoline solution for 36 weeks and its correlation with the development of OSF. Assessment of arecoline content in raw, roasted, boiled and commercial preparations of arecanut and its correlation to the tissue changes occurring after its administration along with development of OSF.

Materials and Methods: A total of 37 healthy inbred rats were selected for the study. One rat was kept as normal (untreated) and rest divided into six groups (raw, boiled, roasted areca nut, pan masala, pure arecoline, and control group) and treated with respective extracts every alternate day for 36 weeks. At every 6 weeks interval, animals were sacrificed randomly and mucosal tissue biopsies collected and processed. hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson stains were used to assess the epithelium thickness, keratin thickness, fibrosis, and vascularity.

Results: Significant histological changes seen in areca nut treated rats in comparison to control group. Histological changes included decreased keratin thickness, thinning of epithelium with partial or complete loss of rete ridges, consistent increase in deposition of compacted collagen fibers and decreased vascularity. Arecoline concentration was highest in raw areca nut, followed by pan masala, roasted areca nut, and boiled areca nut.

Conclusion: Areca nut consumption in various forms (natural or processed) has significant detrimental effects on oral mucosa consistent with findings of OSF.

Keywords: Arecoline, boiled areca nut, pan masala, raw areca nut, roasted areca nut, Sprague-Dawley rats

How to cite this article: Raghavendra N, Ramanna C, Kamath VV, Singroha K. Effects of application of various forms of areca nut preparations in buccal mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats with relation to the development of oral submucous fibrosis. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:42-49.

Received: 5 Feb 2017;

Accepted: 18 March 2017


Current concepts in breast pathology

K. R. Chatura
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:50–54] [No. of Hits: 695]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.156]


Breast is a hormone-regulated organ with a myriad of lesions, both detected and undetected, and visualized by light microscopy after numerous changes at molecular level. With the advent of newer modalities of investigation, an emerging challenge to pathologists is to identify these lesions and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. We need to pay attention to the emerging concepts to meet practical expectations of clinicians and patients.

Keywords: Breast lesions, current concepts, narrative review

How to cite this article: Chatura KR. Current concepts in breast pathology. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:50-54.

Received: 5 March 2017;

Accepted: 18 April 2017


Hemifacial microsomia

Saharan Kirti, S. Shivaprasad, L. AshoK
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:64–66] [No. of Hits: 642]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.159]


Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a condition in which the lower half of one side of the face is underdeveloped and does not grow in a normal pattern. After clefts, this is the second most common facial birth defect. Etiology of HFM is unknown, but prenatal exposures of some drugs and genetic abnormalities may be associated with the condition. Diagnosis and treatment of HFM is challenging due to a wide spectrum of deformities. Here, we present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who complained of facial asymmetry on left side of the face and deformity of the left ear since birth.

Keywords: Craniofacial microsomia, hemifacial microsomia, left facial asymmetry

How to cite this article: Kirti S, Shivaprasad S, Ashok L. Hemifacial microsomia. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:64-66.

Received: 14 Janaury 2017;

Accepted: 28 February 2017


An unusual large nasolabial cyst: A case report and review of literature

C. Ramanna, Kanika Singroha, V. V. Kamath
[Year:2017] [Month:March-April] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages No:67–71] [No. of Hits: 1223]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.160]


The nasolabial cyst (NC) is a soft tissue lesion that is very uncommon developmental, non-odontogenic fissural cyst that is developed in the inferior region of the nasal ala. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but according to most authors, they instigate from entrapped epithelium inside line of union of lateral nasal, globular and maxillary processes, attributable to unusual changes in entrapped epithelium all along the line of fusion throughout the development process. These cysts are generally unilateral sometimes occur bilateral and grow slowly at a size ranging between 1.5 and 3 cm. Clinically, they may present as a floating tumefaction within the nasolabial sulcus region associated with nasal alar elevation along with involved side upper lip projection. The diagnosis is usually based on the esthetic concern rather than pain. The ideal treatment option is complete surgical excision. This paper presents a rare case of an unusually large NC reported in 65-year-old female patient along with the review of literature and our previous operated NC cases

Keywords: Developmental cyst, nasolabial cyst, non-odontogenic cyst

How to cite this article: Ramanna C, Singroha K, Kamath VV. An unusual large nasolabial cyst: A case report and review of literature. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:67-71.

Received: 8 March 2017;

Accepted: 20 March 2017