Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights


Oral cancer screening: Unfashionable hence ignored?

Shashidara Raju

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:79] [No. of Hits: 839]


Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all cancers worldwide.[1] Most cases of this rather preventable disease occur in the so-called developing countries with India figuring very prominently in the top countries in which this disease is a major health burden. That India does not seem to have a visible preventive strategy for oral cancer[2] and bans on Tobacco products seem to be present only on paper are facts that are irrefutable, so the system so to say should take the blame or should it?


Cold laser for oral ulcers: A pilot study

Supriya Babu, M. Arun Kumar, Kunal Agarwal, Vasanthi Ananthakrishnan, Kirthana Kunikullaya, Jaisri Goturu, Sujatha Reddy, Bheemsen Rao

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:80-82] [No. of Hits: 642]


Introduction: Most common form of oral ulcers is recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). It occurs in three forms minor, major and herpetiform ulcers. They are extremely painful ulcer, and there are no established causes or treatment for it. Various causes such as vitamin deficiencies, stress, micro-trauma, has been hypothesized for the etiology of RAS. Treatment with cold lasers is commonly known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT). They are used as adjuvant treatment in the various disorders such as arthritis, tennis elbow, chronic wounds, burns, peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we are using cold lasers for the treatment of the oral ulcers.

Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects with RAS in the age group of 16-50 years of both genders were included in the study. After taking informed consent, they were treated with LLLT (0.63 nm, 10 mW, continuous wave). Area of the ulcer was determined, and the duration of the laser treatment was calculated. On an average, the treatment duration was 10-18 s/day. Subjects were treated daily until the ulcers healed. Efficacy of the treatment was based on assessment pain scores (measured using visual pain analog scale) measured every day after therapy.

Results: Total of 12 subjects underwent treatment. The average size of the ulcer was 8 mm2 with a range of 8-35 mm2. The average pain score (visual analog scale) on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd day, and 5th were 6.9, 6.4, 4.9, and 2.3 respectively.

Conclusion: LLLT is known to cause vasodilatation by releasing nitric oxide at base of the ulcers. This increase in blood supply drains out of the metabolic substances, which cause tissue destruction and pain. It also favors the production of growth factors which causes healing of the ulcer and tissue repair. The observation that pain in the ulcers is same on the 2nd day could suggest that LLLT augments the natural process of healing. Further comparative and follow-up studies are required to prove further Efficacy of LLLT on RAS.

Keywords Low-level laser therapy, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, visual analog scale


Comparison of lip prints, palatal rugae with blood groups in Karnataka and Kerala population

Santosh Hunasgi, Anila Koneru, Hamsini Gottipati, M. Vanishree, R. Surekha, Sangameshwar Manikya

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:83–88] [No. of Hits: 1997] [No. of Citation: 8]


Background: In the literature, there is no data for the study done to compare lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups. Correlating lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups may be valuable in forensic science in precise identification of an individual than by means of lip prints or palatal rugae only. The present study was carried out to establish the allocation of different lip print patterns and palatal rugae among the subjects having diverse ABO and Rh blood groups in Karnataka and Kerala population.

Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 100 subjects, which included 50 Kerala and 50 Manipuri subjects in the age group of 17-21 years. All the individuals’ lip prints, palatal rugae and blood groups were studied. Statistical comparison between the groups was done using the Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for small samples.

Results: Type 2 was found to be the predominant lip print pattern (45%) in both the populations. The major rugae shape in both the populations was wavy pattern and less commonly curved and straight. Left side of the palate showed relatively more number of rugae. Blood Group A showed highest Type 3 lip print, B showed Type 2 pattern, AB showed Type 1 and Type 3 patterns and O showed Type 2 patterns. In blood Group A, curved palatal rugae were predominant whereas, in blood Group B, AB and O wavy patterns were predominant.

Conclusion: In the present study, it is noted that there is no association between lip prints and blood groups. However, comparison of palatal rugae with blood groups showed a statistically significant difference. Thus, our present showed a correlation between palatal rugae and blood groups.

Keywords Blood groups, Kerala population, lip prints, Manipuri population, palatal rugae


Pediatricians’ knowledge and views on promoting oral health: A survey

Prachi Sijeria, Nanjunda Swamy, Sadanand Kulkarni, Shikha Choubey

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:89–93] [No. of Hits: 1827]


Background: To determine pediatricians’ knowledge and views on promoting oral health of their patients.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among the pediatricians in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. The study was cross sectional in design. 204 pediatricians were approached for the study out of which 114 participated in the study, and the data was collected using an objective questionnaire without any oral health information.

Result: The present study shows that pediatricians had poor to moderate knowledge and awareness regarding oral health issues, but they believed that they have an important role and were already participating in promoting oral health.

Conclusion: Pediatricians were aware that assessment of oral health and counseling about prevention of oral disease should be included as an integral part of child care, but their knowledge on oral health issues need to be updated.

Keywords Awareness, oral health, pediatrician


Anti-microbial activity of Punica granatum on streptococcus in dental caries patients and healthy individuals: A comparative study

Vidushi Lalwani, Anila Koneru, M. Vanishree, M. Vardendra, Santosh Hunasgi, R. Surekha

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:94–98] [No. of Hits: 2613]


Background: Researchers today are driven toward the medicinal and therapeutic value of the natural products like Aloe vera, basil, turmeric, green tea, pomegranate (Punica granatum) to prevent dental caries. The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate aril extract on streptococci in dental caries patients and healthy individuals.

Materials and Methods: The study group included 40 subjects; age comprised of 18-26 years 20 dental caries patients were taken as an experimental group (after observing the decayed missing filled teeth index) and 20 healthy individuals without caries as a control group. Two samples were collected from each subject. The collected sample was streaked on Mitis Salivarius Agar, which was incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The colony forming units (CFU) were counted using manual colony counter, and the data were analyzed using paired t-test and unpaired t-test.

Results: The results obtained after pomegranate swish in the experimental group showed a percentage reduction of 52.2% (P < 0.0001) and 33.8% (P < 0.0001) in control group for the CFU. The comparison of after sample between the experimental group and the control group was highly significant.

Conclusion: The result obtained in the study clearly demonstrates that the pomegranate aril extract has an antimicrobial eff ect against Streptococcus, thus acting as an anti-cariogenic agent.

Keywords Dental caries, mitis salivaris agar, oral rinse, pomegranate aril extract, Streptococcus


High-grade chondrosarcoma of the mandible: A rare case report with immunohistochemical findings

Dominic Augustine, S. Murali, B. Sekar

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:99–101] [No. of Hits: 679]


Chondrosarcoma is an uncommon malignant neoplasm of the cartilaginous origin devoid of the tumor osteoid. It is an extremely rare primary tumor of head and neck with <10% of the cases occurring in the craniofacial region. Histological grades are pivotal in treating and managing the neoplasm. The high-grade variant is infrequently seen which makes this case interesting to discuss. Histopathology is the mainstay of diagnosis. A case of high-grade chondrosarcoma of the mandible is discussed herewith, with an emphasis on histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis.

Keywords Cartilage, chondrosarcoma, immunohistochemistry


Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia: A diagnostic dilemma?

Tejavathi Nagaraj, Durga Okade, Pooja Sinha, I. P. Mahalakshmi

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:102–105] [No. of Hits: 4588]


Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) is a slow growing reactive lesion that commonly aff ects the tongue. The pathogenesis of this lesion is obscure. Chronic irritation from traumatic agents is considered to be one of the contributing factors in most of the cases. It usually presents as an ulcer or an indurated submucosal mass. Histopathologically, it is characterized by eosinophilic infl ammatory infiltrate penetrating into the submucosal layers degenerating the underlying muscle. It is important to recognize this mucosal entity as it has a close resemblance with malignancy of the oral cavity. The pathognomonic feature of TUGSE is that it resolves on its own after excisional biopsy. A 25-year-old Sudanese boy had reported to us with an ulceroproliferative growth in the left side of the mouth.

Keywords Biopsy, eosinophils, trauma, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia


Café au lait spot: Case report

L. S. Vagish Kumar

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:106–107] [No. of Hits: 3500]


Café au lait spots (CALS) are pigmented lesions found in various genetic disorders. They also occur in normal populations. Identifying and having knowledge about CALS may help in early detection of associated diseases and genetic disorders, thereby facilitating the prevention of their late manifestations. The article reviews CALS with an example of a case that occurred in an adult patient.

Keywords Café au lait spots, macule, neurof bromatosis, pigmentation


Nasoalveolar molding: A review

S.M. Laxmikanth, Trupti Karagi, Anjana Shetty, Sushruth Shetty

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:108–113] [No. of Hits: 18563] [No. of Citation: 5]


Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital defect of the oral cavity which possesses a serious socioeconomic trouble. It varies in form and severity. In these patients who have deficient hard and soft tissue structures presented a major task to bring about a functional and cosmetic outcome. Recently, nasoalveolar molding (NAM) has gained more attention as it improves facial appearance and function. The objectives of presurgical NAM involves correcting lip segments, lower lateral alar cartilages, and alveolar cleft segments. Results of NAM are promising for CLP, hence are encouraged to be used promptly after the birth and continued till further specific corrective surgeries are performed.

Keywords Cleft lip and cleft palate, nasoalveolar molding appliances, nasoalveolar molding, nasal deformity, presurgical infant orthopedics


Evidence-based dentistry: A new dimension in oral health

H. N. Santosh, Tejavathi Nagaraj, Aditi Bose, Pooja Sinha, I. P. Mahalaksmi

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:114–119] [No. of Hits: 2100] [No. of Citation: 1]


The success of evidence-based medicine depends on the integration of the best research evidence. It is a blend of our patient’s unique values and circumstances with our clinical expertise. Evidence-based dentistry is a new paradigm in medicine, meaning that a therapy should be based on evidence gathered from scientific studies, preferentially based on randomized clinical trials involving a substantial number of patients. There are three main inter-related aspects to the practice of oral medicine. They are clinical care, research, learning, and teaching. Most of the oral diseases are complex, chronic problems that do not have definitive etiology. Many diagnostic tests are costly and need to be critically evaluated for their sensitivity, specificity and cost benefits analysis. Most treatment protocols are opinion based, and prognosis of many oral diseases is difficult to predict. Hence, practice of evidence-based health care in oral medicine will definitely be helpful when clinical decisions are made.

Keywords Evidence based dentistry, meta-analysis, oral medicine, randomized control trial


Periodontal ligament stem cell: An update

Avikal Jain, Ashish Agarwal, Shankar T. Gokhale, R. G. Shiva Manjunath, Neha Mishra

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:1 ] [Number:3] [Pages No:120–122] [No. of Hits: 4066] [No. of Citation: 3]


The periodontium is a complex of four tissues of which two are hard and rests are soft. The hard tissue being the alveolar bone and the cementum and soft tissue consists of the periodontal ligament and the gingiva. Periodontitis is multifactorial infectious disease of the supporting structures of the teeth, characterized by destruction of the bone and connective tissue. The ability to identify and manipulate stem cells has been the basis of tissue engineering based clinical therapies. This has been successfully applied in the field of regenerative medicine. However, its successful application in the field of dentistry for periodontal regeneration is still in its infancy. Novel techniques such as tissue engineering need to be developed to counter to difficulties associated with achieving predictable periodontal regeneration. However, stem cells can be a promising option in this regard. Thus, this review will explore the immense potential and the contemporary concept of stem cells; also it will highlight the recent developments in identification and clinically implication of these cells.

Keywords Periodontal ligament, regeneration, stem cell